Periodontology (Periodontal Disease)

Gums form the infrastructure of our teeth and mouth area. Just like a solid building needs a solid foundation, our teeth and treatments such as prosthesis and lamina need healthy gums to hold in the mouth as they should. Healthy gingival appearance is light pink in color and tightly hugs the teeth. If your gums are unhealthy, you may experience tooth loss one day, even if your teeth are not rotten.

How Does Tartar (Tooth Stone) Form?

Food residues form a compound with the mineral in the saliva and form a lime layer around the teeth and gums. The layer formed at first is soft and quickly becomes hard. You cannot get rid of this layer by brushing your teeth. However, your dentist can remove this layer without damaging your teeth with the use of an ultrasonic tool specially developed for tartar cleaning.

Does The Calculus Have To Be Cleaned And Does Cleaning Damage The Teeth?

Yes, dental calculus cleaning is mandatory. It is recommended to be cleaned every 6 months. When not cleaned, tartar causes inflammation in the gums. This can cause tooth loss.

Cleaning tartar does not cause any harm to the teeth. In addition, if it is cleaned regularly, many oral and dental health problems are prevented.

Periodontology (Periodontal Disease)

Periodontology is a sub-branch of dentistry that examines the clinical and microscopic condition of all hard and soft tissues surrounding the tooth, diagnoses and treats diseases in these tissues, and then ensures the preservation of healthy tissue.

Periodontal disease is the name given to the inflammation of the gums and soft and hard tissues around the teeth. Gingival diseases (Periodontology) do not heal on their own, nor do they get better with treatments such as antibiotics, mouthwash and vitamins. In such cases, the treatment must be done by a gum specialist.

The health of the gums and teeth can be preserved in problems that are diagnosed at an early stage. Tooth loss can occur when such diseases are not treated. Since there is usually no pain, one of the most common causes of tooth loss today is gum diseases.

It is a situation supported by scientific studies that the severity of periodontal disease is an important risk factor in terms of general physical health. In order to prevent gum disease (Periodontology), it is necessary to brush the teeth correctly at least 2 times a day, to use dental floss at least once a day and to visit the dentist regularly every six months.

What are the Symptoms of Gum Disease?

  • bad breath
  • Redness and bleeding in the gums
  • shaking of teeth
  • recession in gums
  • Sensitivity in all teeth to cold drinks
  • Teeth not closing as before
  • Gum bleeding while brushing teeth
  • Increased space between teeth
  • Frequent sores in the mouth
  • Swelling and redness of the gums

Gum diseases (Periodontal diseases) is an infectious disease that affects the tissues around the tooth and supporting the tooth. Periodontal diseases can be seen in all age groups, including children. However, it is more common in adults. Even people who have no dental caries can lose their teeth due to this disease. It is a problem that is very difficult to notice and late because there is usually no pain.

What are the Factors Causing the Formation of Gum Diseases?

Although the main cause of periodontal diseases is bacterial plaque, factors such as smoking, systemic diseases, some drugs, stress and poor diet can also cause these diseases.


Cigarette consumption is very effective in the formation of heart, lung diseases and cancer. At the same time, one of the effects of smoking is the destruction of the oral mucosa, teeth and tissues surrounding the tooth. Periodontal diseases are more common in smokers. There are more than 4000 chemicals in cigarettes and these substances damage the oral tissues. Tooth loss due to periodontal reasons is more common in smokers.


Saliva is an important factor in physiological oral hygiene. Diabetes makes it difficult to clean the mouth, as it leads to a decrease in saliva secretion and an increase in its density. Bacteria multiply rapidly on food residues that cannot be cleaned, causing dental plaque formation. Dental plaques are the main cause of tooth decay and gum disease.

In addition, high blood sugar levels cause oral problems, and oral problems also trigger blood sugar to rise. This vicious circle increases the damage of diabetes to the oral tissues.


Changes in the body during pregnancy also affect the gums. Oral care is much more important during pregnancy. Because rising hormone levels increase pre-existing gingival and dental problems. High levels of hormones increase the amount of fluid in the gingival cells. This can cause the gums to become more sensitive and swollen. During pregnancy, people should pay much more attention to oral care. The best thing to do is to see a dentist before pregnancy and to treat the conditions that may cause problems in the mouth.

Medication Use

Some drugs cause changes in the gingiva, affect other tissues in the mouth and put the oral health of the individual at risk. Some of these drugs are; birth control pills, antidepressants, some blood pressure – heart medications, drugs that suppress the immune system, drugs used during epilepsy treatment, drugs used during asthma treatment and some drugs that contain cortisone in spray form. In such a case, the person should consult with his/her own doctor and dentist and get support for solving the problem in cooperation.

How Is Gum Disease Treated?

Periodontal diseases can be largely prevented or controlled by the treatments planned by the specialist physician. In this case, one of the important elements is early diagnosis and treatment, as in all types of diseases. Another important element is that the dentist is given training to the patient on how to create an oral care order for the future. In this way, the healthy mouth structure that the person regains is protected.

Gum diseases do not heal on their own or unconsciously with home remedies (antibiotics, mouthwash, vitamins, etc.). In such a case, your treatment must be planned by a gum specialist.

When gum disease is in its early stages, tartar and plaque can be removed from the teeth with the help of specially developed tools for such procedures. Apart from this cleaning, it may be necessary to straighten the root surface with curettage. In the initial period of gingival treatment, procedures such as correcting prostheses whose harmony is impaired at the edges of the gingiva and whose position and shape are not correct, caries treatment, restoration of improper filling and extraction of teeth that are no longer possible to save are performed. Thanks to these works, the factors that prepare the environment for the growth of bacteria in the teeth and gums are eliminated.

Patients with more advanced problems may require surgery. With the operation, tartar and diseased tissues deep in the gums are cleaned, the root surface is straightened and the gums are made easier to clean.